Особенности сварочных электродов с рутиловым покрытием

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Сварка является очень сложным процессом, в котором задействовано большое количество химических элементов. Соединение производится с помощью сварочных электродов, которые одновременно являются расходными материалами. Разные виды работ и материалов, требуют применения разных видов электродов.

Типы стержней сильно зависят от покрытия, которое они имеют. Обмазка оказывает влияние на прочность шва и его долговечность. Покрытие защищает сварочную ванну и металл от лишних примесей, содержащихся в воздухе. Попадая в шов, они могут негативно отразиться на его надежности и технологических качествах.

Есть разные виды покрытия, каждое и которых применяется для определенных работ. Мы разберемся в свойствах и особенностях рутилового покрытия.

Характеристики и параметры электродов с рутиловым покрытием

Изделия, которые поставляются на отечественный рынок полностью соответствуют ГОСТу Э42 и 46. При использовании электродов, изготовленных по ГОСТу Э42, металл получит такие технические качества:

  • прочность: 410 МПа;
  • удлинение: 22%;
  • вязкость: 80 Дж/кв. см.

Если соединение выполнено стержнями, соответствующими ГОСТу Э46, тогда характеристики металла будут такими:

  • прочность: 450 МПа;
  • удлинение: 20%;
  • вязкость: 147 Дж/кв. см.

Рутиловое покрытие наносится на электроды, сердечник которых выполняется из углеродной проволоки СВ-08/08А. При проставлении маркировки, рутиловое покрытие отмечается буквой Р.

Состав обмазки электродов может немного отличаться, но в целом в ней содержатся такие элементы:

  • концентрат рутила — 48%;
  • полевой шпат — 20%;
  • ферромарганец — 15%;
  • магнезит — 15%;
  • декстрин — 2%.

Изготовители могут изменять состав покрытия для того, чтобы добиться лучших свойств электрода и подогнать их для конкретных работ.

Чтобы лучше понять какими свойствами обладают электроды, давайте разберем несколько примеров.

Эсаб ОК 46.00

Эта модель электродов производится шведской фирмой Esab. Ее производства есть и в нашей стране. Вот какие свойства имеют эти электроды:

  • Перед началом работ не нужно проводить никаких подготовок. Даже если уровень влаги в электродах вырос, их можно просто прокалить при температуре 80° и они будут готовы к использованию.
  • Сварка электродами допускается даже по влажным поверхностям.
  • Стабильное горение дуги может быть достигнуто даже при низком токе.
  • Электроды дают возможность создать надежный и равномерный шов, который будет обладать высокой стойкостью к различным нагрузкам.

Омниа 46

Электроды производятся американской компанией Lincoln Electric, основанной в 1927 г. Стержни отличаются невысокой ценой и хорошим качеством работы. Электроды хорошо подходят новичкам, поскольку обеспечивают стабильное горение дуги даже при значительном удлинении.

Отличительной особенностью электродов является небольшое разбрызгивание, что экономит как материал, так и сами расходники. Соединение, выполненное Омниа 46 получается надежным и качественным. Электроды могут эффективно применяться для сварки ответственных конструкций.

ОЗС-12

Данная модель электродов обладает сертификатом НАКС, который разрешает использовать их на объектах повышенной опасности. Главными отличиями данных стержней является следующее:

  • соединение ложится легко и ровно, что дает новичкам сварного дела работать быстро и качественно;
  • шлаковый слой, который образуется при формировании шва, легко отделяется.

Большинство рутиловых электродов не имеет чувствительности к влаге, но ОЗС-12 нуждаются в дополнительной прокалке при 150°С и соблюдении отдельных условий хранения.

МР-3

Данная модель является самой распространенной среди потребителей. Стержни изготавливаются под разными брендами. Они обладают такими преимуществами:

  • простое зажигание;
  • шов формируется легко и быстро;
  • работа может производиться от разных токов.

Перед началом работ, необходимо выполнить прокалку электродов при температуре порядка 160°С в течение 60 минут.

Плюсы и минусы рутиловых электродов

По сравнению с другими покрытиями, рутиловое обладает несколькими преимуществами:

  • Наплавленный металл имеет высокую устойчивость к внешним воздействиям. В металле не появляется горячих или холодных трещин.
  • Горение дуги одинаково стабильное на переменном и постоянного токе.
  • Создание коротких соединений происходит гораздо проще, чем при работе электродами с основным покрытием, поскольку повторное зажигание происходит гораздо быстрее и легче. Рутиловое покрытие дает возможность легко зажигать дугу без необходимости счищать нагар с конца стержня.
  • К работам можно приступать сразу — не нужно готовить и обрабатывать поверхности.

К недостаткам рутилового покрытия можно отнести:

  • Электроды с ним могут использоваться далеко не со всеми материалами и назвать их универсальными не получится.
  • При повышении токов сварные свойства ухудшаются. Из-за этого приходится все время контролировать режим работ.
  • Рутиловые электроды нужно подготавливать к работе с помощью прокалки.

Где применяются электроды?

Рутиловое покрытие считается одним из самых практичных. Стержни с ним могут использоваться для широкого круга работ. Применять электроды с рутилом в качестве покрытия можно при:

  • Сборке и ремонте конструкций с небольшой долей углерода в составе. Возможность работы с черными металлами. При сварке шов получается ровным и качественным.
  • Сборке и монтаже трубопроводов различного назначения, в том числе в энергетике. Для сварки не обязательно дожидаться полного высыхания поверхностей.
  • Наплавке рабочих слоев на детали и конструкции, которые стираются в процессе работы.

Заключение

Электроды с рутиловым покрытием могут применяться для различных задач и материалов. Хорошие технологические свойства дают возможность создать качественное и надежное соединение, которое сможет прослужить в течение долгого времени.

Главными отличиями рутиловых электродов являются стабильное горение дуги и удобная работа. Это делает их приятными для новичков, которые только начинают работу в этом направлении.

 

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