Особенности сварочных электродов с целлюлозным покрытием

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целлюлозные электроды

Покрытие сварочных электродов выполняет защитные функции. С его помощью обеспечивается качественная сварка, а металл наделяется необходимыми свойствами. Обмазка укрывает сварочную зону от попадания в металл лишних примесей. Благодаря этому обеспечивается защита от появления пор и трещин.

Покрытие представляет собой смесь из нескольких порошкообразных веществ, которые соединены между собой связующими компонентами.

Есть различные обмазки, которые создаются с тем, чтобы придать электродам необходимые свойства. Самые главные (базовые) из них — это основное, кислое, рутиловое и целлюлозное покрытия. О последнем мы и будем сегодня говорить. Узнаем его свойства, назначение и особенности.

Какой состав имеют целлюлозные электроды?

Сварочный электрод представляет собой сердечник на который нанесено покрытие, имеющее особые свойства. Его главное назначение в том, чтобы защищать сварочную зону от попадания посторонних фракций, способных негативно влиять на качество соединения. Из-за лишних газов или металлов, шов может оказаться непрочным и быстро разрушиться.

“Лишние” элементы определяются изначальным составом металла, который вам предстоит варить. Состав электрода должен максимально походит на оригинальный материал. В этом случае соединение будет надежным.

Вот какие элементы входят в состав целлюлозного покрытия:

  • Органические соединения — порядка 50%. Они представлены целлюлозой, мукой и крахмалом. С их помощью обеспечивается газовая защита соединения.
  • Рутиловый концентрат.
  • Мрамор, карбонаты и алюмосиликаты, которые отвечают за формирование шлаковой корки во время сварки.
  • Разные изготовители могут добавлять в покрытие разные порошки и ферросплавы.

Свойства металла, наплавленного в результате сварки, соответствуют качествам, предусмотренным ГОСТом Э45 — 50.

Чтобы лучше понять какие свойства и назначение имеют электроды с целлюлозным покрытием, давайте рассмотрим несколько моделей.

ВСЦ-4М

Данная модель электродов предназначены для проставления горячих швов и стыков труб. При помощи этих стержней производится сварка сталей, имеющих прочность до 590 МПа и небольшое содержание легирующих компонентов.

При помощи данных электродов, удается создать соединение, обладающее стойкостью к появлению пор и трещин. Перед началом работ рекомендуется провести предварительную подготовку стержней. Для этого они должны пройти прокалку в течение часа при температуре 60°С.

ОМА-2

Электроды используются для работы с тонкими конструкциями и деталями, имеющими толщину до 3 мм и прочность до 410 МПа. Сварка данными стержнями производится на постоянном или переменном токе.

Отличительная особенность данной модели в том, что с ее помощью можно проводить сварку по окисленным поверхностям. Электроды не могут глубоко проплавлять металл. Из-за этого их рекомендуется использовать только с тонколистовым металлом и тонкими конструкциями.

ЦЦ-1

Эта модель электродов используется для работы с углеродистыми сталями, имеющими небольшой уровень легирования. Их прочность может составлять до 451 МПа. При сварке, соединение получается пластичным и обладает отличными параметрами ударной вязкости.

Стержни могут эффективно применяться при работе даже в непростых монтажных условиях, когда к рабочей зоне тяжело подобраться. Это возможно благодаря тому, что электроды позволяют варить в потолочном и вертикальном положении. Сварка может проводиться на постоянном или переменном токе.

Перед сваркой необходимо подготовить электроды. Для этого нужно выполнить прокалку в течение 60 минут и при температуре 110°С. Наиболее эффективной сварка будет на короткой или средней дуге.

Преимущества и недостатки целлюлозных электродов

Среди плюсов электродов с целлюлозным покрытием нужно отметить следующее:

  • Их можно использовать в самых разных сферах. Сварка может вестись в любом положении, что позволяет подобраться к разным участкам без особого труда.
  • Электроды позволяют поддерживать высокую производительность. За один час работы можно создать до 25 м шва.
  • Полученное соединение отличается хорошей проваркой.
  • Наплавленный металл отлично защищен от водорода и кислорода, которые способны спровоцировать появление трещин в соединении.
  • Шлаковый слой, который образуется в процессе сварки, подвержен легкому удалению, что положительно сказывается на эффективности работ и производительности.

Электроды имеют и некоторые минусы. В частности:

  • Шов формируется в виде грубой чешуи, которую приходится обрабатывать, чтобы привести к хорошему виду.
  • Во время сгорания обмазки, может образоваться большое количество водорода. Если он попадет в шов, то может стать причиной появления пор или трещин.
  • При работе электродами наблюдается большое разбрызгивание металла. На это уходит порядка 15% стержня.
  • Перед началом работ нужно проводить прокалку электродов.

Применение электродов

Основной сферой, где могут применяться целлюлозные электроды является сварка сталей с низким содержанием легирующих компонентов. Их небольшой диаметр позволяет работать при любом монтаже. По большей части они используются при монтаже трубопроводов.

Главное преимущество целлюлозного покрытия по сравнению с прочими обмазками — это легко зажигание дуги и ее стабильное горение. Несмотря на то, что работа может проводится от любого вида тока, лучше всего использовать постоянный ток. Так можно будет обеспечить лучшую проварку и качество шва.

Применяя целлюлозные стержни в работе, нужно помнить несколько вещей:

  • Оно не подходит для сварки закаливающихся сталей, в которых содержится много углерода, и которые имеют высокий уровень легирования.
  • Во время подготовки электродов, температура электродов и время, в течение которого они прокаливаются, должно соответствовать инструкции и рекомендациям.

При слишком большом времени сушки электродов, из них выйдет слишком большое количество влаги, которой должно оставаться примерно 3 — 4%. Если превысить температуру прокалки электродов, тогда есть риск повышения содержания углерода в металле, что также может негативно отразиться на качестве соединения.

В этом ролике показан процесс сварки целлюлозными электродами:

Заключение

Основное назначение целлюлозных электродов — сварка сталей с малой долей углерода и легирующих компонентов. Они идеально подходят для сложного монтажа. С их помощью можно проводить работы на месте. Такие стержни обладают хорошими сварными свойствами и позволяют работать с большим комфортом. Благодаря этому они могут использоваться даже неопытными сварщиками.

 

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  71. Le diable peut paraître burlesque comme la peur qu’il véhicule encore chez certaines personnes au XXIe siècle. En France particulièrement où l’on vit dans l’espace public avec une perception mythologique de la laïcité. La laicité qu’on déclame dans les discours politiques, celle qui penche vers une spiritualité républicaine basée, pour le dire rapidement, sur les lois, la science et les institutions. Cette laicité-là est un mythe, comme tous les mythes, elle est aveugle. C’est-à-dire qu’elle évacue toutes les formes de spiritualités qui ont explosé en France ces trente dernières années et je ne parle pas que de l’islam. Journalistiquement, c’est ce que je retiens de cette enquête, cette schizophrénie française qui m’a explosé au visage.

  72. I must express some thanks to you just for bailing me out of this challenge. Because of browsing through the the web and seeing ways which were not helpful, I assumed my life was well over. Living without the presence of solutions to the problems you have fixed as a result of your good review is a crucial case, as well as the ones which may have adversely affected my entire career if I had not come across your web page. The knowledge and kindness in taking care of every item was useful. I’m not sure what I would’ve done if I hadn’t encountered such a subject like this. I’m able to at this time look ahead to my future. Thank you very much for the impressive and results-oriented help. I will not be reluctant to propose your blog to any individual who needs counselling on this matter.

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