Покрытие сварочных электродов — особенности, виды

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покрытие электродов

Сварочные электроды состоят из сердечника, который обычно делается из сварочной проволоки, и покрытия, которое называется обмазкой. Покрытие необходимо для того, чтобы создать барьер между зоной сварки и воздухом. Оно не допускает окислительного процесса. Покрытие наносится на все типы электродов, с помощью которых проводится сварка черных и цветных металлов, а также разнообразных сплавов.

Для чего нужно покрытие?

Главное назначение обмазки — это защита металла и сварочной ванны во время проведения работ. Если металл начинает реагировать с воздухом, происходит окисление и качество соединения заметно снижается. Шов может стать непрочным и быстро разрушится. Проведение сварки без какой-либо защиты приведет к тому, что в соединении образуются поры и трещины.

Покрытие работает так. Во время плавки электрода, капли металла покрываются шлаковой коркой. Двигаясь вдоль расплавленной поверхности изделия, над швом образуется шлаковая корка, которая защищает его от внешних воздействий.

Под такой защитой соединение дольше остывает и приходит в застывшее состояние. Это необходимо для того, чтобы из него вышли все нежелательные фракции, которые могут снизить качество соединения. Обмазка стержней представлена большим количеством разных защитных элементов. Его главными компонентами являются концентрат титана и каолин.

Покрытие необходимо для таких функций:

  • Защита дуги и сварочной ванны от кислорода, азота и углекислого газа, содержащихся в воздухе. Защита представлена углекислым газом и углеродными окисями, которые укрывают сварочную зону и шлаковый слой во время сварки.
  • Благодаря покрытию электродов, удается создать надежное соединение, в котором нет пор, трещин и слабых мест.

Другие функции обмазки имеют большее отношение к техническим параметрам сварочного процесса.

  • Покрытие влияет на стабильность горения дуги в разных режимах работы. Этого эффекта удается достичь за счет наличия стойкости обмазки к ионизации. Ионы способствуют стабильному горению дуги.
  • Содержащиеся в покрытии ферросплавы дают возможность удалить кислород из соединения, что защищает шов от появления полостей и трещин. Кислород связывается с ферросплавами и выводится в виде испарений.
  • Благодаря покрытию, металл шва удается очистить от различных примесей.

Какой диаметр имеет покрытие и какая у него толщина?

Разные электроды рассчитаны на работу с разным материалами. При их изготовлении учитывается нагрузка и условия, в которых буду работать собранные конструкции, изделия и оборудование.

Для электродов имеется 2 значения диаметра — с обмазкой и без нее. Диаметр всего стержня очень важен для того, чтобы подобрать правильный расходник для работы. Всем известно, что более толстые электроды лучше подходят для сварки сталей с большей толщиной.

В зависимости от диаметра стержня и толщины свариваемого металла, выставляется рабочий ток. Ток необходимо подобрать правильно. Если вы установите слишком большое значение, то металл просто проплавится, а если наоборот — слишком маленькое, то не сможете зажечь дугу.

Говоря о диаметре, обычно имеется в виду совокупная величина сердечника и покрытия, ведь эффективность сварки обеспечивается за счет обоих составляющих. Кроме того без покрытия было бы очень сложно сделать надежное соединение.

Выбирая электроды, нужно обращать внимание не только на общий диаметр, но также на показатель покрытия. Для разного сечения сердечника используется разный диаметр обмазки. Среди всего множество можно назвать 4 группы, отличающиеся между собой толщиной покрытия:

  • тонкие;
  • средние;
  • толстые;
  • особо толстые.

В самых качественных моделях электродов толщина покрытия разнится в пределах от 0,5 до 2,5 мм. Если добавить к этому железный порошок, получится 3,5 мм. При этом масса покрытия будет составлять примерно половину от общего веса изделия. Стержни с таким соотношением покрытия и сердечника применяются когда нужно сделать надежное соединение, способное выдерживать большие нагрузки.

Толщина покрытия тонких электродов не превышает 0,3 мм. Его основная функция — стабилизация горения дуги. Оно не влияет на качество полученного металла.

Какие бывают покрытия?

Есть 4 основных вида покрытий. Давайте подробнее с ними разберемся.

  • основное — в маркировке обозначается буквой Б;
  • кислое — обозначается буквой А;
  • целлюлозное — Ц;
  • рутиловое — Р.

Тип покрытия нужно подбирать в соответствии с типом металла, с которым нужно работать. В расчет принимают нагрузки на конструкцию и детали.

Теперь по-отдельности рассмотрим каждый вид покрытия.

Основное

С помощью такой обмазки соединение лишается кислорода. В шве не будет образовываться горячих трещин, способных очень быстро вывести его из строя. Для того чтобы обезопасить соединение от образования пор или полостей, перед сваркой нужно выполнять прокалку электродов.

Основное покрытие не очень хорошо справляется со стабильным горением дуги. Для большинства таких электродов потребуется постоянный ток обратной полярности.

Основное покрытие хорошо подходит для изделий и конструкций, выполненных из закаливающейся стали, в которой могут образовываться холодные трещины. С помощью таких электродов может производиться сварка составов, с повышенным содержанием серы и фосфора.

Электроды с такой обмазкой очень часто применяются для сварки в несколько слоев в конструкциях, имеющих повышенные требования к жесткости.

Кислое

Такой тип обмазки дает возможность практически полностью исключить вероятность появления трещин в шве. По этой причине такие электроды используются для работы по ржавым поверхностям. Это покрытие обеспечивает стабильное горение дуги и ее простое зажигание.

Электроды с подобным покрытием применяются, когда к изготавливаемым конструкциям и деталям предъявлены небольшие требования по надежности. Они могут работать как от постоянного, так и от переменного тока. Кислое покрытие обладает несколькими серьезными недостатками. Оно производит большое количество брызг, и выделяет токсичные испарения.

Целлюлозное

Стержни, имеющие целлюлозное покрытие, отличаются стабильным горение дуги. Чаще всего они применяются с постоянным током. По большей части они используются для установки корневых швов трубопроводов, выполненных из стали, имеющей небольшое содержание углерода.

Целлюлозные электроды применяются для односторонней сварки с хорошим проплавлением корневых швов. Они позволяют эффективно работать в вертикальном положении.

Покрытие не годится для сварки высокоуглеродистых сталей, имеющих большую долю легирующих компонентов. Оно плохо справляется с высокими температурами и производит много брызг при работе.

Рутиловое

Это покрытие является самым распространенным. Электроды с ним отлично варят даже по ржавчине и следам окалины. Соединение, которое образуется при сварке, защищено от горячих трещин.

Рутиловое покрытие позволяет работать даже по грунтованным поверхностям. Шов в любом случае получится прочным и надежным. Имея такую обмазку, электроды будут работать от любого тока. Дуга при этом будет стабильной. Кроме этого покрытие отличается минимальным уровнем разбрызгивания. Это экономит материал и обеспечивает защиту от раскаленных капель металла.

Рутиловые электроды могут отлично справляться с тонкими и средними изделиями в любом положении. Если материал имеет большую толщину, тогда его сварку лучше всего проводить в нижнем положении.

Если вам предстоит варить конструкции или изделия, имеющие высокие требования по стойкости к большим температурам, пользоваться рутиловыми стержнями нежелательно.

Заключение

Покрытие сварочных электродов прямо влияет на качество получаемых соединений. Помимо этого оно определяет назначение и технологические свойства расходников.

Разные электроды с разными свойствами могут отличаться по стоимости и параметрам. Это зависит от сферы, где они применяются и работ, которые нужно провести.

 

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