Разновидности электродов по диаметру — какие бывают и как выбрать

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диаметры электродов

Сейчас на рынке можно найти большое количество электродов. Все они отличаются своими техническими характеристиками и имеют разное назначение. Они могут отличаться в применении по типу материалов и предстоящих работ. Одинаковые модели электродов могут отличаться между собой размерами и таким параметром как диаметр. Изготовители выпускают разные вариации одних и тех же электродов, которые могут справляться с разными сталями.

Давайте выясним, как диаметр влияет на электроды и их рабочие свойства. Разберемся как нужно подбирать диаметр чтобы сварка была эффективной и простой.

Какими могут быть диаметры электродов?

Разные изготовители электродов предусматривают разные диаметры для своих изделий. Очень важно назначение электродов. Большой диаметр нужен не для всех материалов, даже для тех, которые имеют большую толщину. Стали могут иметь разную плотность. Таким образом, чтобы расплавить некоторые виды материалов не требуется большой мощности, с которой может справиться более толстый электрод. Тоже самое работает и в обратную сторону. Тонкий с виду материал может обладать высокой плотностью, с которой не сможет справиться тонкий стержень.

Чтобы лучше разобраться с разными диаметрами, давайте разберем несколько разных моделей электродов.

  • LB 52U — 2,6, 3,2, 4, 5 мм;

  • АНО-21 — 1,6, 2, 2,5, 3, 4, 5 мм;

МР-3 — 2, 2,5, 3, 4, 5 мм;

  • ОЗС-12 — 2, 2,5, 3, 4, 5 мм;

  • ОК-46 — 2, 2,5, 3, 4, 5 мм;

  • Уони 13/45 — 2, 2,5, 3, 4, 5 мм.

Кроме диаметра, большое значение имеет и длина электродов. Это не самый важный параметр, но о нем нужно знать. Как правило чем больше диаметр стержня, тем больше его длина. Причиной такого соотношения является расход электродов. Чем больше диаметр, тем больше его расход.

Для большего диаметра электрода нужен больший ток. А при большом токе электроды плавятся сильнее. Кроме того массивные детали нужно глубже проплавлять.

Опытные мастера предпочитают пользоваться электродами с наибольшей длиной. Это дает возможность не прерываться во время работы и делать непрерывные швы. В итоге можно получить красивое и равномерное соединение. Впрочем, длинные швы нужны далеко не везде и если стержень короткий, он отлично справится с работой.

Почему тонкие электроды не делают длинными? Причина в том, что они бы часто гнулись и ломались. Это доставляло бы лишние проблемы.

Те марки электродов, которые имеют собственную специализацию имеют ограниченный выбор диаметров и длины.

Как диаметр зависит от толщины материала?

Для надежного соединения больших деталей или конструкций, необходимо сделать на них большой шов. Чтобы его создать, нужно воспользоваться большим диаметром электрода, на который можно будет подать большой ток, чтобы расплавить металл.

Большая толщина металла требует выделения большего тепла, то есть большего тока, который может выдержать только стержень с большим диаметром. Таким образом чем толще свариваемый металл, тем больший диаметр электрода потребуется для работы с ним.

Отдельные электроды изготавливаются в диаметре до 8 мм. Они используются на промышленных производствах при сборке и ремонте толстых конструкций. Для работы с тонкостенными изделиями, потребуется небольшой диаметр — от 1 мм. Таким образом получится добиться большой точности шва.

Если диаметр электрода будет больше толщины свариваемого металла, он просто проплавит его. Чтобы электрод расплавился, потребуется мощность, которую не смогут выдержать более тонкие изделия.

Как ток зависит от толщины металла?

Толстые изделия и конструкции требуют большого количества тепла и соответственно большого тока. При небольшом диаметре, стержень не выдержит большого тока. Он вскипит и придет в негодность.

При большой толщине металла, нужно больше энергии. Причина не только в том, что нужно расплавить материал, но также в том, чтобы создать глубокий шов. Большой ток могут выдержать только электроды с большим диаметром. Они качественно передадут энергию на изделие или конструкцию.

Для толстых материалов важны не только большие токи, но также источник питания, который будет их генерировать. Если у вас не будет хорошего трансформатора, о нужных значениях тока и качественном токе не может быть и речи. Помимо этого аппарат должен иметь большой запас прочности, чтобы работать на больших токах в течение продолжительного времени. Работать на максимальной мощности в течение долгого времени может не каждый трансформатор.

Заключение

Подбор модели электрода и его диаметр, производится исходя из того, какие работы вам предстоят. Если выбрать правильный диаметр, вы без труда сможете создать качественное соединение, которое прослужит в течение долгого времени.

Электроды, имеющие большой диаметр используются на особых производствах, где собираются изделия и оборудование, которое работает под большими температурами и при высоком давлении. Большинство бытовых работ может выполняться стержнями диаметром до 3 — 4 мм.

 

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